Text Formatting

Hydrogram uses a custom Markdown dialect for text formatting which adds some unique features that make writing styled texts easier in both Markdown and HTML. You can send sophisticated text messages and media captions using a variety of decorations that can also be nested in order to combine multiple styles together.


Basic Styles

When formatting your messages, you can choose between Markdown-style, HTML-style or both (default). The following is a list of the basic styles currently supported by Hydrogram.

  • bold

  • italic

  • strike

  • underline

  • spoiler

  • text URL

  • user text mention

  • inline fixed-width code

  • pre-formatted
      fixed-width
        code block
    

Markdown Style

To strictly use this mode, pass MARKDOWN to the parse_mode parameter when using send_message(). Use the following syntax in your message:

**bold**

__italic__

--underline--

~~strike~~

||spoiler||

[text URL](https://hydrogram.org/)

[text user mention](tg://user?id=123456789)

`inline fixed-width code`

```
pre-formatted
  fixed-width
    code block
```

Example:

from hydrogram import enums

await app.send_message(
    "me",
    (
        "**bold**, "
        "__italic__, "
        "--underline--, "
        "~~strike~~, "
        "||spoiler||, "
        "[URL](https://hydrogram.org), "
        "`code`, "
        "```"
        "for i in range(10):\n"
        "    print(i)"
        "```"
    ),
    parse_mode=enums.ParseMode.MARKDOWN
)

HTML Style

To strictly use this mode, pass HTML to the parse_mode parameter when using send_message(). The following tags are currently supported:

<b>bold</b>, <strong>bold</strong>

<i>italic</i>, <em>italic</em>

<u>underline</u>

<s>strike</s>, <del>strike</del>, <strike>strike</strike>

<spoiler>spoiler</spoiler>

<a href="https://hydrogram.org/">text URL</a>

<a href="tg://user?id=123456789">inline mention</a>

<code>inline fixed-width code</code>

<emoji id="12345678901234567890">🔥</emoji>

<pre>
pre-formatted
  fixed-width
    code block
</pre>

Example:

from hydrogram import enums

await app.send_message(
    "me",
    (
        "<b>bold</b>, "
        "<i>italic</i>, "
        "<u>underline</u>, "
        "<s>strike</s>, "
        "<spoiler>spoiler</spoiler>, "
        "<a href=\"https://hydrogram.org/\">URL</a>, "
        "<code>code</code>\n\n"
        "<pre>"
        "for i in range(10):\n"
        "    print(i)"
        "</pre>"
    ),
    parse_mode=enums.ParseMode.HTML
)

Note

All <, > and & symbols that are not a part of a tag or an HTML entity must be replaced with the corresponding HTML entities (< with &lt;, > with &gt; and & with &amp;). You can use this snippet to quickly escape those characters:

import html

text = "<my text>"
text = html.escape(text)

print(text)
&lt;my text&gt;

Different Styles

By default, when ignoring the parse_mode parameter, both Markdown and HTML styles are enabled together. This means you can combine together both syntaxes in the same text:

await app.send_message("me", "**bold**, <i>italic</i>")

Result:

bold, italic

If you don’t like this behaviour you can always choose to only enable either Markdown or HTML in strict mode by passing MARKDOWN or HTML as argument to the parse_mode parameter.

from hydrogram import enums

await app.send_message("me", "**bold**, <i>italic</i>", parse_mode=enums.ParseMode.MARKDOWN)
await app.send_message("me", "**bold**, <i>italic</i>", parse_mode=enums.ParseMode.HTML)

Result:

bold, <i>italic</i>

**bold**, italic

In case you want to completely turn off the style parser, simply pass DISABLED to parse_mode. The text will be sent as-is.

from hydrogram import enums

await app.send_message("me", "**bold**, <i>italic</i>", parse_mode=enums.ParseMode.DISABLED)

Result:

**bold**, <i>italic</i>

Nested and Overlapping Entities

You can also style texts with more than one decoration at once by nesting entities together. For example, you can send a text message with both bold and underline styles, or a text that has both italic and strike styles, and you can still combine both Markdown and HTML together.

Here there are some example texts you can try sending:

Markdown:

  • **bold, --underline--**

  • **bold __italic --underline ~~strike~~--__**

  • **bold __and** italic__

HTML:

  • <b>bold, <u>underline</u></b>

  • <b>bold <i>italic <u>underline <s>strike</s></u></i></b>

  • <b>bold <i>and</b> italic</i>

Combined:

  • --you can combine <i>HTML</i> with **Markdown**--

  • **and also <i>overlap** --entities</i> this way--